Crossbar and NeWS questions
aek at bitsavers.org
Thu Mar 22 11:03:42 CDT 2007
Al Kossow wrote:
> > The Burroughs B5000/6000/7000 series mainframes used crossbar
> switches to
> > interconnect CPUs with memory and I/O processors. These machines were
> > introduced in 1961 or thereabouts.
> The relevant document is the B 5220 Central Control Technical Manual, orig
> issued in 1964 which discusses the crossbar:
> page 111 or so..
additional info from a posting by doug jones
> No matter how many processors you have, only one can access common RAM
> at a time, right?
> I was wondering if anyone had figured out a way to allow simultaneous
> accesses of RAM by multiple processors.
This has been done in many ways over the years. In 1960, a guy named
Conway proposed the solution that Burroughs used for its commercial
multiprocessors (they routinely sold 6 processor machines into the early
1980's). This involved a crossbar switch:
Here, the cost of the interconnection goes up as the square of the number
of CPU's. By 1973, they were able to build a 16 CPU system on this
pattern at Carnegie-Mellon University. As long as each CPU used a
different memory, they ran at full speed, but when two tried to access
the same memory at the same time, they'd slow down.
In the late 1970's, another scheme was invented, the snooping cache.
Here, you hook things up like this:
CPU CPU CPU ... CPU
| | | |
cache cache cache cache
| | | |
| | |
M M ... M
Here, when a CPU accesses memory, it usually gets a local copy of the
necessary value in its own cache. Only when the local cache hasn't got
a copy of the value does the bus and the real memory get used. Of course,
keeping all cached copies of the same meory location up to date when one
CPU changes that location is a good trick, but the problem is solved
by what are called snooping caches.
Back in the 1980's, Sequent and Encore came out with machines supporting
16 to 64 processors built this way; DEC built the firefly workstation
this way also -- using 4 microvaxen.
There are other schemes that combine the virtues of the above two ideas,
and these have allowed experimental systems with thousands of processors
to be built. The recent announcement from Sun of a machine with 64
processors puts it at the high end of what I expect snooping caches to
be able to do, but at the low end of the range successfully explored by
the more complex interconnection systems.
Multiprocessors aren't novel; they've been commercially available for 30
j... at cs.uiowa.edu
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